### Linear Apertures Theory

Over the general directivity pattern in eq. 2.27 one can apply some simplifications, oriented towards array processing:

• The aperture has a linear shape: • A far-field signal is received (therefore , with L being the total length of the aperture.

• The aperture function is constant for all frequencies.

In this case the directivity function simplifies to (2.28)

which contains zeros of reception at with being a scalar value.

At all effects, a linear sensor array can be considered as a sampled version of a continuous linear aperture. One can obtain the aperture function of the array as the superposition of all individual element functions ( ) which are equivalent to the array function and measure the element's response for a particular direction of arrival. The aperture function is now written as: (2.29)

for an array with N elements, where is the element function for element , is the complex weighting for element and is the position of such element in the axis.

For the far-field case, and considering all elements with identical element function, the directivity function can be computed as (2.30)

In where the complex weighting can be expressed as module and phase in the following way: (2.31)

where can be used to control the shape of the directivity and to control the angular location of the main lobe, being both scalar functions.

Beamforming techniques that use a microphone array for acoustic enhancement of the signal play with these two parameters to obtain the desired shaping and steering of the lobes of the directivity pattern to certain locations in the space. Some of these techniques use the approximation of far-field signals done in here and others (fewer) consider near-field waves, with different directivity pattern development.

user 2008-12-08